The Cerebrum
It consists of two hemispheres each of which is subdivided into several lobes. The front of the cerebrum is the frontal lobe. The outermost portion, the temporal lobe. The part towards the top is the parietal lobe and the back of the cerebrum is the occipital lobe. Each lobe is responsible for specific functions.
The Cerebellum
Otherwise known as the “little brain”, it is involved in the maintenance of balance and posture, coordination of movement, motor learning and certain cognitive functions.
The Brainstem
It acts as a relay center connecting the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord. It also serves a critical role in regulating involuntary actions such as breathing, heartbeat and blood pressure. It is pivotal in maintaining consciousness and regulating the sleep cycle.
Brain Tumors
Brain tumors are neoplasms (an abnormal, new uncontrolled growth of tissue) that arise from within the skull. They can be broadly classified into either benign or malignant tumors.
Benign Brain Tumors
  • Tend to grow more slowly
  • The symptoms they elicit are usually present for a longer period of time
  • Cells are well-differentiated (i.e. they look more like normal tissue)
  • The risk of invasion into neighbouring tissue is typically low
  • They often have a circumscribed surface
  • Complete surgical resection reduces the risk of recurrence
Malignant Brain Tumors
  • Tend to grow rapidly
  • Cells are poorly-differentiated
  • Symptoms often occur over a shorter period of time or present suddenly
  • Tend to invade into neighbouring tissue or spread to remote areas
  • Following surgery radiotherapy or chemotherapy (or both) is often required.
  • The risk of recurrence is relatively higher
Brain Tumor Symptoms
Seizures (focal or generalised)
Hearing loss, Tinnitus or Dizziness
Headache and Vomiting
Hormonal Imbalance Symptoms
Confusion, Drowsiness, Personality Changes or Memory Impairment
Limb Clumsiness, Weakness, Numbness, Unsteady Gait
Facial Spasms, Pain or Swallowing Difficulties
Slurred Speech or Difficulties in Expressing Oneself
Double Vision
Brain Tumor Therapy Modalities
Targeted Therapy / Other drug Treatments
Alternating Electric Field Therapy / Tumor Treating Fields (TTF)
Targeted Therapy / Other drug Treatments
Alternating Electric Field Therapy / Tumor Treating Fields (TTF)


This is often the primary treatment of choice. The aims of surgery are to establish a definitive tumor diagnosis, to decompress nervous tissue and to perform maximal safe resection.


This utilization of high doses of ionizing radiation to kill or shrink cancer cells.


Drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals (single or multiple agents) to kill fast- growing cells in your body. They are generally administered either orally or through an intravenous infusion.

Targeted Therapy / Other drug Treatments

A few brain tumors carry genetic driver mutations that can be amenable to target therapy.

Alternating Electric Field Therapy / Tumor Treating Fields (TTF)

The application of low-intensity electric fields alternating at an intermediate frequency administered to the head. This novel treatment has been demonstrated to block brain tumor cell division and thereby inhibit tumor growth. It is currently indicated as a treatment option for Glioblastoma (GBM) after surgery and concomitant chemoradiotherapy.


This is an important facet in the overall treatment of brain tumor patients. The aim is to integrate the patient back to society through comprehensive multidisciplinary care such as physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy and clinical psychology, in order to live a normal life.
What should I do if i am diagnosed brain tumors?
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Is brain tumors curable?
How much is the surgery cost?
What should I do after the surgery?
Where can I get the treatments?
You Still have some questions ?
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The brain tumour patient’s charter of rights
Orientation to Caregiving
Transitions in Care for Patients with Brain Tumors: Palliative and Hospice Care